Table 3.

Increased Calorie Requirements

Increased Metabolism/Increased Use of Calories
• Chronic/recurrent infection (eg, urinary tract infection, tuberculosis)
• Chronic respiratory insufficiency (eg, bronchopulmonary dysplasia)
• Congenital heart disease/acquired heart disease
• Malignancy
• Chronic anemia
• Toxins (lead)
• Drugs (eg, excess levothyroxine)
• Endocrine disorders (eg, hyperthyroidism, hyperaldosteronism)
Defective Use of Calories
• Metabolic disorders (eg, aminoacidopathies, inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism)
• Renal tubular acidosis
• Chronic hypoxemia (eg, cyanotic heart disease)