Table 1.

Inadequate Calorie Intake

Lack of Appetite
• Anemia (eg, iron deficiency)
• Psychosocial problems (eg, apathy)
• Central nervous system (CNS) pathology (eg, hydrocephalus, tumor)
• Chronic infection (eg, urinary tract infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
• Gastrointestinal disorder (eg, pain from reflux esophagitis)
Difficulty With Ingestion
• Psychosocial problems (eg, apathy, rumination)
• Cerebral palsy/CNS disorder (eg, hypertonia, hypotonia)
• Craniofacial anomalies (eg, choanal atresia, cleft lip and palate, micrognathia, glossoptosis)
• Dyspnea (congenital heart disease, pulmonary disease)
• Feeding disorder
• Generalized muscle weakness/pathology (eg, myopathies)
• Tracheoesophageal fistula
• Genetic syndrome (eg, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome)
• Congenital syndrome (eg, fetal alcohol syndrome)
Unavailability of Food
• Inappropriate feeding technique
• Insufficient/inadequate volume of food
• Inappropriate food for age
• Withholding of food (abuse, neglect, psychosocial)
• CNS pathology (increased intracranial pressure)
• Intestinal tract obstruction (eg, pyloric stenosis, malrotation)
• Gastroesophageal reflux
• Drugs (eg, purposeful administration of syrup of ipecac)