Table 2.

Causes of Acute Upper Intestinal Bleeding

COMMONUNCOMMON
Infant• Swallowed maternal blood• Gastric ulcer
—Human milk
—During delivery
• Esophagitis
Older Child
Esophagus• Esophagitis• Esophagitis
—Acid reflux—Viral (herpes, cytomegalovirus)
—Pill-induced—Allergic
• Mallory-Weiss tear—Fungal
—Caustic ingestion
• Varices
• Dieulafoy disease
• Foreign body
• Duplication cyst
Stomach• Gastritis• Gastritis
—Prolapse gastropathy—Crohn disease
—Aspirin—Portal hypertension
—Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugHelicobacter pylori
• Stress ulcer/gastritis• Ulcer
—Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
—Cushing ulcer
• Leiomyoma
• Varices
• Vascular malformation
• Dieulafoy disease
Duodenum• Duodenitis• Ulcer
—Crohn diseaseH pylori
—Curling ulcer
• Vascular malformation
• Foreign body
• Lymphoid hyperplasia
• Varices
• Dieulafoy disease
• Duplication cyst
• Hemobilia
Other• Swallowed blood• Swallowed blood
—Oral/nasal pharynx—Munchausen by proxy
• Pulmonary hemorrhage