Table 2.

Relationship of Leukemia Pathophysiology to Clinical Manifestations

Leukemia AbnormalityClinical Signs, Symptoms, or Complications
AnemiaPallor, fatigue, decreased appetite; congestive heart failure with extremely severe anemia
NeutropeniaFever; risk of overwhelming infection increases with severity of neutropenia
ThrombocytopeniaPetechiae, ecchymoses, mucosal and other bleeding
Coagulation factor deficienciesIncreased bleeding; disseminated intravascular coagulation with severe factor deficiencies occurs frequently in the acute promyelocytic subset of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia
Leukemia in boneBone pain